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What is the 2024 plan of ‘Venus’, which is called the younger sister of the Earth of ISRO, understand

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New Delhi : After the success of Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan, India is now working on the ‘Shukrayan’ mission to the planet Venus, which is called Earth’s younger sister. It can be launched by December 2024. With this, India has joined the race to join the select countries including America, Russia, Japan, who have sent spacecraft to Venus, the closest planet to Earth. Shukrayaan will study the atmosphere of the planet Venus which is not at all conducive for life. surrounded by clouds of sulfuric acid. Before the details about India’s Shukrayaan mission, let us tell you why Venus, the planet Venus, is so important that all the countries are studying it.

Why is Venus important
Venus is the closest planet to Earth. It is considered the first planet in the Solar System where there was life. Once upon a time it was just like the earth. Similar to Earth in size. Like the earth, there was an ocean there too. The climate there was also like that of the earth. But now the planet Venus is not fit for life. The surface temperature there is 900 °F, or 475 °C. This temperature is high enough to melt even the glass. The atmosphere of Venus is very toxic. It is full of carbon dioxide. Venus is surrounded by yellow clouds of sulfuric acid. The density of Venus’s atmosphere is 50 times greater than that of Earth. It is the hottest planet in the Solar System. Why is Venus, once the first living planet in the Solar System, like hell today? Why and how did this happen? Wouldn’t the situation on earth be the same? Scientists around the world are trying to find answers to these questions. The possible destruction of life on Earth can also be avoided by the study of Venus.

India’s mission ‘Shukrayan’
ISRO chairman S. Somnath said on Wednesday that work on the Venus mission was going on for many years and now the space agency is “ready to send the orbiter by Venus”. He said, ‘The project report has been prepared, all the plans are ready, the cost has been prepared. It is possible for India to send a mission to the orbit of Venus in a very short time as we have this capability today. India’s Venus mission has not been formally named ‘Shukrayan’ mission, but just as Moon mission was named Chandrayaan, Mars mission was named Mangalyaan, similarly ISRO’s Venus mission can be named Shukrayan.

Launch target by December 2024
India wants to launch Venus mission by December 2024. The reason for this is that at that time the position of the planet Earth and Venus will be such that it takes the least amount of fuel for a spacecraft to reach Venus. If the launch is not possible in December 2024, then 7 years after that i.e. in 2031, that kind of favorable astronomical condition will be created. However, ISRO has not yet officially released any timeline for the Venus mission.

What information will be collected from the Venus mission
The experiments that have been planned for the Venus mission include examining the surface, examining the layers of the lower part of the surface, where volcanoes are active on Venus, how lava is flowing, from what things the atmosphere It is composed i.e. includes the study of Atmospheric Chemistry etc. Apart from this, the effect of solar winds on the ionosphere of Venus, it will be investigated.

Important instruments of Shukrayan
The most important instrument of Shukrayaan is its Dual Frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar which has been prepared by ISRO for Chandrayaan-2 mission. This radar is 4 times the resolution of the Magellan Orbiter Mission launched by the American Space Agency NASA in 1989. GSLV Mk II or the even more powerful GSLV Mk III launch vehicle can be used for Shukrayaan.

46 Venus missions have been launched so far
So far, only the US, Russia, the European Space Agency and Japan have launched Venus missions. A total of 46 Venus missions have been launched so far. Some of these spacecraft reached Venus, some reached its orbit, some made hard landings on the surface and some soft landings. These missions can be divided into 3 types-

1. Flyby means the spacecraft passes near the planet
2. Lander mission i.e. in which the instrument is landed on the surface of the planet from the spacecraft
3. Orbiter mission i.e. in which the spacecraft keeps circling in the orbit of the planet concerned

India’s Venus mission will be the orbiter.

America first got success in Venus mission in 1962
First, in February 1961, Russia launched the T. Sputnik mission to Venus, but it failed. The US also launched the first flyby Venus mission through Mariner-1 in July 1962 but failed. In the same year in August 1962, America finally succeeded in the Venus mission. His Mariner-2 mission was successful. After 5 years, Russia got success in Venus mission for the first time through Venera-4. In 2005, the Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency was also successful. In 2010, Japan joined the club of selected countries with successful Venus missions when its Mission Akatsuki became successful. This mission is still working. In the last 30 years, only 3 spacecraft have been placed in the orbit of Venus.

Now this Venus mission is active
Japan’s Akatsuki Mission is still active. This is an orbiter mission. European Space Agency Bepi Colombo’s spacecraft is moving towards Mercury, but it will pass very close to Venus twice during the mission.

Ongoing preparations for these Venus missions
The US space agency NASA will launch its spacecraft VERITAS in 2028 which will study the planet Venus. Apart from this, NASA is preparing to launch another mission DAVINCI. India is preparing to launch the first Venus mission in December 2024. Similarly, the European Space Agency is also going to launch the EnVision spacecraft by 2030. Russia is also preparing to launch its lander mission Venera-D in the coming times.

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